An anal fissure may occur when you pass hard or large stools during a bowel movement. Anal fissures typically cause pain and bleeding with bowel movements. You also may experience spasms in the ring of muscle at the end of your anus (anal sphincter)
When high blood sugar damages the nerves and blood vessels in the feet. The nerve damage, called diabetic neuropathy, can cause numbness, tingling, pain, or a loss of feeling in your feet.
In this condition the corner or side of a toenail grows into the soft flesh. The result is pain, inflamed skin, swelling and, sometimes, an infection. Ingrown toenails usually affect the big toe
Foot is a major and important part of body, may be affected by a variety of diseases, especially trauma, diabetes etc.
Sr. General Surgeon
Dr. Irfan Ahmed Nadeem is a renowned general surgeon of Pakistan; with a vast experience in Government and private sectors. In 2008 Kashmir’s earthquake he faced the challenges to deal with the patients without the aid of modern investigations and operation theatre facilities. He came up to the challenge and the experience gained at that time proved to be valuable in life later on. In March 2016, he presented ‘One Hole Cholecystectomy’ at 18th International Congress of the Egyptian Hepatic Pancreatic-Biliary Society. He made the operations simple, comfortable and safe in fields of General surgery, Orthopedic, ENT, Gynecology and obstetrics and many others.
Thyroglossal Cyst / Sinus / Fistulae
- The thyroid gland descends early in fetal life from the base of the tongue towards its position, so the isthmus lying over the second and third tracheal rings.
- At the time of its descent, the hyoid bone has not been formed and the track of the descent of the thyroid gland is variable, passing in front, through or behind the eventual position of the hyoid bone body.
- Thyroglossal cysts represent a persistence of this track and may therefore be found anywhere in or adjacent to the midline from the tongue base to the thyroid isthmus.
- Any part of the tract can persist causing a cyst, sinus or fistula.
Rarely, a throglossal cyst may contain the only functioning thyroid tissue in the body
- Foot is a major and important part of body, may be affected by a variety of diseases, especially trauma, diabetes, etc.
- Foot diseases may be congenital or acquired which may be inflammatory, traumatic or neoplastic.
- The deviation of big toe towards lesser toes which sometimes overrides them.
- Commonly with bunion (Consists of overgrowth of bone and bursa) on medial side of first metatarsal head is present.
- If it’s painful, it can be managed by applying Inj. SKL.
If definitive treatment is required, especially cosmetically, then correct by surgical procedures, preferably without any fixation and apply Inj. SKL to prevent future osteoarthritic changes
- It is a traumatic/inflammatory lesion due to the pressure of nail against the nail fold resulting in soft tissue Infection (paronychia).
- Infection source (bacteria) may comes from the tonsils or sinuses.
- Big toe is commonly affected usually on one side but may be on both sides and rarely both big toes are involved.
- Other toes may also be affected.
- Teenage group is the most sufferer, (usually history of minor trauma, wearing of tight shoes).
Diabetics are more prone to infection of foot because of:-
- Peripheral vascular diseases especially micro-vascular changes are major factors in compromising healing due to hypoxia/ischemia.
- Peripheral neuropathy – impairs sensation and thus favours the neglect of minor injuries and infections.
- Impaired resistance to infection allows minor infections to spread.
- Low hemoglobin (due to nephropathy) delays the healing process.
ANAL FISSURE (FISSURE IN ANO)
- An elongated ulcer in the long axis of the lower half of the anal canal usually at midline posteriorly or anteriorly or both, and rarely laterally.
- It extends from the pectinate line (dentate line) to the margin of the anal verge where a sentinel pile is common in chronic cases.
- It is a painful condition, associated with extreme increase in anal tone, leading to distressful constipation.
- It may be acute, chronic or recurrent and usually occurs alone and sometimes with other anal diseases e.g. hemorrhoids.
- It is more common in young females, usually after child birth or lower abdominal operations eg, C section, TAH, etc